Religious terrorists view violence as an end, not a means to political or economic ends. In Muslim countries, we find high levels of belief in hell: Iran, 98 percent; Indonesia, 99; Pakistan, 94; Turkey, 94; Nigeria, Hence, people will participate less in religious activities because their time is now more valuable to them.
Economic development implies a rising opportunity cost of participating in religious services and prayer. The students coming from the Maha Vidyalayas and Madya Maha Vidyalaya schools, established in villages in as part of the introduction of universal free education, had high expectations that they would be able to obtain a university degree and employment.
Getting at causality, we use the idea by Bentzen that earthquakes instigates exogenous variation in religiosity due to religious coping. Longevity has been rising almost everywhere in the world. If children are not taught religious values and beliefs, then they themselves will not be religious, and, perhaps, not productive.
They also include commerce with Turkey, whose expanding markets provide a comparative advantage to Turkish-speakers. The authors turn next to the assessment of how differences in religiosity affect economic growth.
Protestant sects in the United States — Nazarenes, Mennonites, Brethren, Amish, and Hutterites — are embedded in a functioning state where the political and economic conditions allowed for an accommodation with the secular culture. When we look at the effects of economic development on religion, we find that overall development — represented by per capita Gross Domestic Product gdp — tends to reduce religiosity.
As a case in point, prior to the nineteenth century Christian and Jewish communities living under Muslim-governed regimes policed themselves to keep their resentments from fueling active resistance to the state. We address these issues using a unique novel dataset containing yearly data on Muslim presence for each Spanish municipality, digitize literacy rate for municipalities in Spain, and geo-reference the universe of patents granted in Spain in the period The influence of religious participation and religious beliefs on life expectancy can be positive.