Sociolinguistics dialect continuum and language

The Romance area spanned much of the territory of the Roman Empirebut was split into western and eastern portions by the Slav Migrations into the Balkans in the 7th and 8th centuries.

Standard language

For many decades since Italy's unification, the attitude of the French government towards the ethnolinguistic minorities was copied by the Italian government. Dalmatian in turn formed a chain with Venetian, which led to Romansch and Italian etc, and so a single continuum may have been spoken had Dalmatian still been used. How to cite this page Choose cite format:. Dialectology, The varieties in these extremes are not mutually intelligible but at any two points on the continuum they are. Motivation is very important because every act of comprehension always requires certain effort. On the other hand there are so called dialects of Chinese, i. This is manifested through motivation and experience. Salt vs. The initial linguistic situation in Jamaica was such that those at the top of the social scale, the British, spoke English, while those at the bottom of the social scale, the African slaves, spoke Jamaican Creole. The criterion of mutual intelligibility is not entirely successful.

This can be seen with speakers of both English and German. That is, it has a certain spectrum or range characterized by different dialects and accents. That has been most notable in France, owing to the French government's refusal to recognise minority languagesbut it has occurred to some extent in all Western Romance speaking countries.

difference between language and dialect

In such instances socio-political factors and prestige considerations take precedent over mutual intelligibility. The traditional view in linguistics is that language should be studied as an abstract theoretical system with its vocabulary and grammar, after which SL could be added for more comprehensive account of the practical application of the language system.

At any point on this extensive continuum, speakers of one dialect can understand speakers of other dialects who live in adjacent areas to them.

Regional dialect

Because Arabic is written in an Abjad , the difference between the written standard and the vernaculars also becomes apparent in the written language and so children have to be taught in school to articulate Modern Standard Arabic to be able to write it. Adjacent dialects are mutually understandable to a large extent, but those from distant regions are not at all. Western dialects of Persian show greater influence from Arabic and Oghuz Turkic languages, but Dari and Tajiki tend to preserve many classical features in grammar and vocabulary. This is manifested through motivation and experience. In other words, a Cantonese speaker may write his language much the same as a Mandarin speaker and yet pronounce the written text totally differently. One of the varieties is used only on formal public occasions, while the other one is used by everybody under normal everyday circumstances. The reason is that the linguistic systems involved do not differ fundamentally. Within the dialects, gradations do exist between pure local vernacular and the more refined speech of the better educated that incorporates elements from the standard language or written language. This continuum is sometimes presented as another example, but the major languages in the group i. To the west and south of Romania these dialects continue into Bulgaria , Macedonia and Serbia though with distance from their heaviest concentration the two named countries , the population becomes more sparse as each generation decreases in number due to assimilation of the local languages. The varieties in these extremes are not mutually intelligible but at any two points on the continuum they are. Speakers understand more dialects than they speak.

This happens, for example, across large parts of India. While the heterogloss is more precise at the interface, it is neutral with regard to any claim about those features a and b.

Sociolinguistics dialect continuum and language

Romance languages The Italo-Western branch of the Romance languages , which comprises Italian , Spanish , French and Portuguese , as well as other languages with fewer speakers, is sometimes presented as another example, although the major languages in this group have had separate standards for longer than the languages in the continental West Germanic group, and are not commonly classified as dialects of a common language. This sub-continuum also included West Frisian dialects up until the s, but faced external pressure from Standard Dutch and, after the collapse of the Hanseatic League , Standard German which greatly influenced the vocabularies of these border dialects. The varieties in these extremes are not mutually intelligible but at any two points on the continuum they are. One of the varieties is used only on formal public occasions, while the other one is used by everybody under normal everyday circumstances. German Volkssprache as opposed to a possible classical language which may have a position of dominance in cultural or ecclesiastical spheres. It may be the case that the degree of mutual intelligibility is related to the differences, rather than the similarities, between the two grammars in question. Historically, it also happened in various parts of Europe such as between Portugal , southern Belgium and southern Italy , and between Flanders and Austria. For many decades since its unification, the above attitude of the French government was reflected in Rome by the Italian government which affected the adjoining dialects of this continuum spoken in Northern Italy. There are three varieties of Turkic geographically outside the continuum: Chuvash , Yakut and Dolgan. Wiktionary 5. The term is used in two slightly different ways and is also represented graphically in two different ways. At any point on this extensive continuum, speakers of one dialect can understand speakers of other dialects who live in adjacent areas to them. Diastratic Refers to variation in language between social classes. German, for instance, would not be considered a single language because some types of German are not intelligible to speakers of other types.

In this process two major forces are at play — individualism and conformism syobrazqvane — two counteracting forces. Chambers, J.

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Dialect continuum