Review on the biomedical importance of taurine
In contrast to the response to hypoosmotic stress, the regulatory response to hyperosmotic stress leads to increased taurine influx into the cell [ 45 ]. Sprague-Dawley rats. Taurine was located immunohistochemically mainly to the surface of the exposed media and adventitia of the injured carotid artery and higher levels were observed in the taurine treated rats. The effect of taurine supplementation on blood pressure in SHR rats was investigated already in the ies [ 94 ]. The osmoregulatory activity of taurine appears to be an important determinant of cell survival. Dietary supplementation with taurine is indicated to have cardiovascular benefits. Taurine and associated health benefits An increased dietary intake of taurine has been associated with multiple beneficial health outcomes. This practice started in the early s after recognizing that preterm infants fed infant formulas had lower urine and plasma concentrations than infants fed pooled human milk [ 55 ]. This reaction has attracted considerable attention because of its potential involvement in the regulation of mitochondrial protein synthesis [ 7 , 8 ]. Neurons and glia have been shown to sequester glutamate via high-affinity uptake systems. The finding that taurine availability protects against cholestasis induced by monohydroxy bile acids remains confined to guinea pigs. Several of these conditions are taurine dependent. High concentrations of taurine in the developing brain [ 57 ], as well as results from various animal studies clearly indicate the importance of taurine in neurodevelopment [ 58 , 59 ]. Taurine supplementation does not alter plasma lipids in male wistar rats fed normal chow [ 85 ]. Based on these findings, Ito et al.
Moreover, a transmural gradient of taurine exists in the left ventricle, with the highest taurine concentrations found in the endocardium, which experiences the greatest work load. It was first identified and isolated from the bile of the ox Bos taurusfrom which it derives its name [ 1718 ].
Although it is found in high concentration in most mammalian tissues, its concentration is particularly high in cardiac and skeletal muscle.
Because taurine is a fairly inert compound, it is an ideal modulator of basic processes, such as osmotic pressure, cation homeostasis, enzyme activity, receptor regulation, cell development and cell signalling.
However, in severe cases of eccentric hypertrophy the ventricular chamber dilates and the walls become thinner. Prolonged TPN feeding of infants demonstrates the importance of taurine in retinal development.
Even after washing and transferring the excised retina to glutamate-free medium, Olney found that the lesion had progressed further, particularly in cells within the inner half of the inner nuclear layer, [ 2 ].
Based on this evidence alone Kocsis et al. Several studies have shown that taurine reverses these actions of Ang II [ 6768 ]. This pattern is characteristic of an eccentric form of hypertrophy, in which the myocytes become thicker and longer than normal.
Echocardiographic analysis revealed that the taurine deficient cardiomyopathy was characterized by reduced fractional shortening combined with an increase in left ventricular chamber dimensions and impaired response to dobutamine [ 1516 ].
based on 27 review