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These assays provide more specific information about sperm quality and function. In these cases, if the cause is identified and treated early, semen quality may gradually return to normal values over time.

For this reason, the aims of this research were: 1 to assess if Doppler ultrasonography is a good tool to diagnose stallions with testicular dysfunction; 2 to study the relationship between Doppler parameters of the testicular artery and those of sperm quality assessed using flow cytometry membrane integrity, mitochondrial activity and SCSA Sperm Chromatin Structure Assay3 to establish if there are differences in the blood flow between stallions with normal sperm function and stallions with testicular dysfunction chronic processes ; 4 to measure Doppler parameters of intra-testicular arteries in stallions to determine if they can be used as a predictor of sperm production or ejaculate quality; and, finally, 5 to define cut off values to differentiate fertile stallions from stallions with testicular dysfunction.

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Recently, new techniques in flow cytometry are being introduced to assess equine semen quality [ 1617 ]. Moreover, some of these tests such as the Sperm Chromatin Structure Assay SCSA show a close correlation with fertility in stallions and allow classification of the ejaculates based on fertility [ 18 ].

This technique is a good early indicator of acute pathologies related to vascular disorders, and is also a good predictor of semen quality in other species such as the dog and human [ 91213 ].

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In contrast, subfertile stallions tend to present high values of PI and RI high vascular resistance. A reduction in ejaculate quality or sperm production can be triggered by acute processes such as testicular trauma, an increase in scrotal temperature, testicular torsion or due to inguinal hernias [ 1 — 5 ].

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Pulse Doppler ultrasound as a tool for the diagnosis of chronic testicular dysfunction in stallions